Recode’s research team has been reviewing existing literature and interviewing experts from the US and Europe on the future of on site sanitation given the demand for higher water quality. Based on our research we have assembled case studies that range from low cost to high cost and no user change to some user change or an operations and maintenance contract. From wood chip filters added on to existing septic systems, to urine diversion and dry toilet alternatives to vacuum systems for cluster developments. These are living documents, we will add information as we continue interviewing experts and receive feedback from regulators, industry and citizens.
We share the current costs of installation, retrofitting and operation and maintenance. We also discuss current benefits of such systems and barriers or obstacles to low cost implementation of best available technologies.